instagram pinterest linkedin facebook twitter goodreads facebook circle twitter circle linkedin circle instagram circle goodreads circle pinterest circle

Blog

NAMES OF CAPTIVES

Old Deerfield Burial Ground: mound in back by building is mass grave from 1704.
Tony asked: I had an ancestor, Ruth Caitlin, taken in the Deerfield raid. Why isn’t she mentioned in your book?

It’s true, Tony, Ruth was a captive taken to Montreal and returned to Deerfield in 1707. Four other Catlin’s were taken or killed along with a couple others who were then known by their married names. I am including a handy list of all captives compiled by another Deerfield descendant. A common difficulty with historical fiction is being confronted by a cast of characters over whom the author has no control other than to simply ignore some, and in my experience, there are always too many characters. For this reason I began limiting the characters with the ALLARDS SERIES and included a list of characters at the beginning of each book. My apologies to all the readers whose ancestors did not appear in FEARFUL PASSAGE NORTH.

DEERFIELD CAPTIVES

Name of resident: Age, Killed, Captured, 0r Died in Route and Notes

David Alexander 45 X Killed In the Meadow
Mary (Weld) Alexander 37 X Captured
Joseph Alexander 23 X Escaped First night
Mary Alexander 2 X Killed in Village
Sarah Allen 12 X Remained, as Marie Madeleine
Mary Allis 22 X Redeemed 1710
Samuel Allis (Of Hatfield) 25 X Killed In the Meadow
Capt. Thomas Baker (sol) 22 X Escaped 1705
Hannah (Barnard) Beaman 58 X Captured
Simon Beaman 59 X Captured
Hepzibah (Buell) (Wells) Belding 55 X Killed in Route
Robert Boltwood (of Hadley) 21 X Killed in the Meadow
Samuel Boltwood (of Hadley) 56 X Killed in the Meadow
William Boltwood (of Hadley) 17 X Died in 1714 returning
John Brigdman (sol) 29 X Escaped same Day
Mary (Williams) Brooks 31 X Killed in Route (Miscarried)
Mary Brooks 7 X Captured, never returned
Nathaniel Brooks 40 X Redeemed 1707
William Brooks 6 X Captured, never returned
Abigail Brown 26 X Captured Returned
Benjamin Burt 24 X Ransomed 1706
Sarah (Belden) Burt 22 X Ransomed 1706
John Caitlin 61 X Killed in the Village
John Caitlin 17 X Ransomed in 1706
Jonathan Caitlin 42 X Killed in the Village
Joseph Caitlin 23 X Killed in the Meadow
Ruth Caitlin 20 X Redeemed 1707
Ebenezer Carter 7 X Ransomed 1707 for 24 lbs.
Hannah (Weller) Carter 30 X Killed in Route
Hannah Carter 3 X Killed in Route
John Carter 9 X Remained, as Jean Chartier
Mary Carter 7mo X Killed in Route
Mercy Carter 10 X Remained, married an Indian
Samuel Carter 12 X Died in Canada, 1714
Thomas Carter 5 X Killed in the Village
Elizabeth (Caitlin) Corse 34 X Killed in Route
Elizabeth Corse 8 X Remained, as Marie Élisabeth
Daniel Crowfoot (sol.) X Captured
Abigail (Stebbins) de Noyen 26 X Remained with husband
Jacques de Noyen 27 X Remained
Sarah Dickinson (of Hadley) 48 X Captured
Joseph Eastman (student) 21 X Redeemed 1707
John Field 4 X Ransomed
Mary (Bennett) Field 28 X Ransomed
Mary Field 7 X Remained, Married
Sarah Field 2 X Killed in Village
Samuel Foote (of Hatfield) 27 X Killed in the Meadow
Mary (Daniels) Frary 62 X Killed in Route
Samson Frary 72 X Killed in the Village
Abigail French 7 X Remained, lived with Indians
Freedom French 12 X Remained, as Marie Francoise French
John French 1mo X Killed in the Village
Martha French 9 X Remained, as Marguerite Married a French man
Mary (Caitlin) French 40 X Killed in Route
Mary French 18 X Ransomed in 1706
Thomas French 47 X Ransomed in 1706
Thomas French 17 X Ransomed in 1706
Mary Harris 11 X Remained, Married
Samuel Hastings (sol)? 20 X Captured, Never Returned
Alice (Allis) Hawks 57 X Killed in the Village
Elizabeth Hawks 7 X Killed in Route
John Hawks 31 X Killed in the Village
John Hawks 8 X Killed in the Village
Martha Hawks 5 X Killed in the Village
Thankful (Smead) Hawks 27 X Killed in the Village
Thankful Hawks 3 X Killed in the Village
Jacob Hickson/Hix (sol)? 19 X Killed in Route
Mehuman Hinsdale 31 X Ransomed in 1706
Mary (Rider) Hinsdale 24 X Ransomed in 1706
Samuel Hinsdale 1 X Killed in the Village
Abigail (Cooke) (Pomeroy) Hoyt 44 X Captured, Redeemed later
Abigail Hoyt 3 X Killed in Route
David Hoyt Sr. 52 X Killed in Route
David Hoyt Jr. 28 X Killed the Meadow
Ebenezer Hoyt 9 X Captured, Never Returned
Jonathan Hoyt 16 X Ransomed in 1707
Sarah Hoyt 18 X Redeemed in 1714
Elizabeth Hull 16 X Captured, Later Redeemed
Benjamin/Benoni Hurst 2 X Killed in the meadow
Ebenezer Hurst 5 X Remained as Antoine Nicolas
Elizabeth Hurst 16 X Remained as Marie Elizabeth
Hannah Hurst 8 X Captured, Later Redeemed
Sarah (Jeffreys) Hurst X Captured, Later Redeemed
Sarah Hurst 18 X Captured, Later Redeemed
Thomas Hurst 12 X Remained
Joseph Ingersol (sol)? 29 X Killed in the Village
Jonathan Ingram (of Hadley) X Killed in the Meadow
Joanna Kellogg 11 X Remained, Married an Indian
Jonathan Kellogg 5 X Killed in the Village
Joseph Kellogg 13 X Released in 1714
Martin Kellogg 46 X Ransomed 1706
Martin Kellogg 18 X Escaped 1705
Rebecca Kellogg 9 X Remained, w/Indians until 1728
John Marsh (of Hatfield) 32 X Captured
Phillip Mattoon 24 X Killed in Route
Rebecca (Nims) Mattoon 24 X Killed in the Village
Baby Girl Mattoon X Killed in the Village
Sarah Mattoon 17 X Escaped 1709/Ransomed 1711
Abigail Nims 4 X Remained as Marie Elizabeth
Ebenezer Nims 18 X Redeemed 1714
Henry Nims 22 X Killed in the Village
Mary Nims 5 X Killed in the Village
Mercy Nims 5 X Killed in the Village
Mehitable (Smead) Nims 36 X Killed in Route
Mehitable Nims 7 X Killed in the Village
Joseph Petty 31 X Escaped 1705
Sarah (Edwards) Petty 25 X Ransomed 1706
Esther Pomeroy X Killed in Route
Joshua Pomeroy 29 X Captured Returned before 1708
Lydia Pomeroy 10 X Captured, Later Returned
Samuel Price 18 X Redeemed about 1714
Sarah (Webb) Price 53 X Killed in Route
Jemima Richards 9 X Captured never Returned
Josiah Rising (Visiting) 10 X Remained as Ignace Raizenne
Mary/Mercy Roote 15 X Killed in the Village
Ebenezer Sheldon 13 X Captured, Later Returned
Hannah (Stebbins) Sheldon 40 X Killed in the Village
Hannah (Chapin) Sheldon 24 X Ransomed 1706
Mary Sheldon 17 X Ransomed 1706
Mercy Sheldon 3 X Killed in the Village
Remembrance Sheldon 7 X Ransomed 1706
Thomas Sheldon 27 X Killed in the Village
Elizabeth (Lawrence) Smead 66 X Killed in the Village
Mary (Price) Smead 23 X Killed in the Village
Sarah Smead 4 X Killed in the Village
William Smead 3 X Killed in the Village
Martin Smith (Sol) ? X Killed in the Village
Benoni Stebbins 49 X Killed in the Village
Dorothy (Alexander) Stebbins 44 X Redeemed 6 Days Later
Ebenezer Stebbins 9 X Remained as Jacques Charles Stebenne
John Stebbins 57 X Redeemed 6 days Later
John Stebbins Jr. 20 X Redeemed 6 days Later
Joseph Stebbins 4 X Remained as Joseph Stebenne
Samuel Stebbins 16 X Returned in 1723
Thankful Stebbins 12 X Remained as Louise Therese
Andrew Stevens (Indian) 25 X Killed in the Village
Elizabeth (Price) Stevens 21 X Remained as Marie Elizabeth, Married
Benjamin Waite (of Hatfield) 64 X Killed in the Meadow
Ebenezer Warner 29 X Captured, Redeemed
Sarah Warner 5 X Captured, Redeemed
Waitstill (Smead) Warner 25 X Killed in Route
Waitstill Warner 3 X Remained
Nathaniel Warner (of Hadley) 23 X Killed in the Meadow
Mary Wells 29 X Killed in the Village
Esther Williams 13 X Ransomed in 1706
Eunice (Mather) Williams 40 X Killed in Route
Eunice Williams 8 X Remained, Married an Indian
Jersua Williams 1mo X Killed in the Village
John Williams 1 X Killed in the Village
John Williams 40 X Ransomed 1706
Samuel Williams 15 X Ransomed 1706
Steven Williams 9 X Ransomed 1706
Warham Williams 4 X Ransomed 1706
Frank (Williams servant) X Killed in Route
Parthena (Williams servant) X Killed in the Village
John Weston (sol)? X Captured
Judah Wright (Sol) 27 X Redeemed about 1707

Plus 2 other Frenchmen XX Captured

 Read More 
Be the first to comment

Frontier Literacy

A reader asks: Were people, especially women, really literate this far into the frontier?

Not everyone was literate, but more than one might suppose. The Puritans required schools for towns with more than 40 families, and schools like Dame Beaman’s abounded. They taught boys and girls up to ten years of age in basic skills, reading (mostly the Bible) and some writing. At the age of ten, girls could continue to study at home or help with the elementary school as Lizzie and her friends did. Not all children attended but many did and some excelled. A wonderful example is the captive, Mary French, who returned to New England with her father while her sisters, Freedom and Martha, remained to become members of French-Canadian society. She is said to have written a poem to convince her siblings to abandon Catholic Canada and return to Puritan New England. It is a remarkable document for a young girl of 17. Read More 
Be the first to comment

Captive Children

More questions about Indians and captive children: Did the captive children really want to stay with the Indians and not return home?

Actually the answer was frequently, yes. Many of the children stayed with the Indians in spite of family efforts, sometimes relentless, to redeem them. Most of these were with the Iroquois. The Algonquin were much more willing to return the children and women, usually for money. Young Samuel Price would be an example, but the Iroquois were not usually so inclined. In addition, the children with the Iroquois did not seem to want to leave—I suspect the truth is somewhere in between the will of the children and the will of the Natives. Perhaps the children preferred the Indian society to that of the Puritans. Mary Field, Mercy Carter, Abigail French and Hannah Hurst were among those who stayed and married Indian men. Some returned to visit Deerfield as adults but then returned to their villages. Reverend John Williams’ Daughter, Eunice, was sought after by the tireless efforts of her family and particularly her influential father, but she repeatedly refused to leave her adopted home and village. This is well chronicled in the excellent academic work, THE UNREDEEMED CAPTIVE, by John Demos, 1994.
In addition, several women and children chose to remain with the French. In addition to Elizabeth Price were Thankful Stebbins, Freedom French and Martha French who married the young stonemason, Jacques Roi. Their Grandson became the first Archbishop of Québec. Read More 
Be the first to comment

Makya and Elizabeth

Makya
More Questions: Did Makya only want a wife? This seems odd.

Of the three cultures involved, the French wanted land for the fur trade and the English wanted land for the large number of people coming to the new world. But the wants of the Indians were more complex and multifaceted. And yes, Makya’s sole reason for joining the raid was a wife.

Both the Algonquin and Iroquois had interest in land particularly maintaining the land they had not yet lost to the Europeans. The Iroquois had a greater interest as their culture was agrarian and they traditionally remained on their land as contrasted with Algonquins who had a more mobile hunting and gathering society. Both groups sought captives to replace those lost to European wars and disease. Generally men were taken to be slaves or occasionally killed for revenge. Women and children were wanted to replace those vital lost and loved members of the tribes. Makya had lost his wife and child and was merely looking to replace them. Fortunately for Elizabeth, his gentle and charitable nature caused him to change his plan. More about children next week. Read More 
Be the first to comment